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The Dead Sea Scrolls

Scroll Lists with Translations

Below, please find the names of the scroll fragments that were on display during the exhibition's run in St. Paul.

First set of five scrolls

On display at the museum from March 12, 2010 through May 22, 2010.

Genesis Mur 1-806
100-135 CE
From Genesis 32:30-33:1

"And Jacob asked him, and said: 'Tell me, I pray thee, thy name.' And he said 'Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name?' And he blessed him there. Therefore the children of Israel eat not the sinew of the thigh-vein which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day; because he touched the hollow of Jacob's thigh, even in the sinew of the thigh-vein. And Jacob lifted up his eyes and looked."

Psalms 11Q5-979
1-50 CE
From Psalm 119

"My eyes fail with watching for thy promise; I ask, 'When wilt thou comfort me?'
For I have become a wineskin in the smoke, yet I have not forgotten thy statutes.
How long must thy servant endure? When thou wilt judge those who persecute me?
Godless men have dug pitfalls for me, men who do not conform to thy law.
All thy commandments are sure; they persecute me with falsehood; help me!
They have almost made an end of me on earth; but have not forsaken thy precepts.
In thy steadfast love spare my life, that I may keep the testimonies of thy mouth.

For ever, O LORD, thy word is firmly fixed in the heavens.
Thy faithfulness endures to all generations; thou hast established the earth, and it stands fast.
By thy appointment they stand this day; for all things are thy servants.
If thy law had not been my delight, I should have perished in my affliction.
I will never forget thy precepts; for by them thou hast given me life.
I am thine, save me; for I have sought thy precepts.
The wicked lie in wait to destroy me; but I consider thy testimonies.
I have seen a limit to all perfection, but thy commandment is exceedingly broad."

Isaiah 4Q58-236
1-50 CE
From Isaiah 53:11-54:2

"Of the travail of his soul he shall see to the full, even My servant, who by his knowledge did justify the Righteous One to the many, and their iniquities he did bear. Therefore will I divide him a portion among the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the mighty; because he bared his soul unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors. 'Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife,' saith the LORD. Enlarge the place of thy tent, and let them stretch forth the curtains of thy habitations, spare not; lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy stakes."

Damascus Document 4Q266-688
30-1 BCE
Includes the preamble to this sectarian text that dictated statutes dealing with vows and oaths, Sabbath laws, and ritual cleanliness, among other things

"The elaboration of the laws by the sage for the sons of light to keep apart from the ways of wickedness...until the completion of the fixed time for visitation upon the spirit of iniquity...God will destroy all her works, bringing ruin upon the errant in spirit, those who move boundaries, and he will wreak ruin upon those who work...wickedness. And no hearken unto me, and I will make known to you the awful devices of God and his mighty wonders will I relate to you which are hidden...from mortal man during the numbered days that he lives, all...in he depth of...seald...by the commandment of...the offering did not hearken to...the voice of Moses...slander against the statutes and commandment of God...little or great...Please make known unto us the...your talk, if...you stood and considered...they bring back the dust...and ashes and you did not...consider..."

Temple Scroll 11Q20-608
1-50 CE
Large parts of this sectarian manuscript deal with the temple: the temple vessels, their size, the way they were made, the size of the temple's courts, and the laws governing the practices that took place within it.

"On which you brought the new offering to YHWH, the bread of the firstfruits, seven weeks. It will be seven full Sabbaths to the morning of the seventh Sabbath you will count fifty days and offer new wine for the libation, four him for all the tribes of Israel, a third of a hin for each tribe. And on that day all the heads of the thousands of Israel will offer with this wine an offering to YHWH twelve rams, and their offering according to the regulation, two-tenths of finest flour mixed with oil, a third of a him of oil for each ram with this libation...and they will offer a burnt-offering: two bullocks, one ram, and seven yearling lambs and one he goat, as a sin offering to atone for all the people of the assembly."

Second set of five scrolls

On display at the museum from May 23, 2010 through August 2, 2010.

Deuteronomy 4Q35-389
50-1 BCE
From Deuteronomy 33: 9-22

"Who said of his father, and of his mother: 'I have not seen him'; neither did he acknowledge his brethren, nor knew he his own children; for they have observed Thy word, and keep Thy covenant. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordinances, and Israel Thy law; they shall put incense before Thee, and whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. Bless, LORD, his substance, and accept the work of his hands; smite through the loins of them that rise up against him, and of them that hate him, that they rise not again. Of Benjamin he said: The beloved of the LORD shall dwell in safety by Him; He covereth him all the day, and He dwelleth between his shoulders. And of Joseph he said: Blessed of the LORD be his land; for the precious things of heaven, for the dew, and for the deep that coucheth beneath, And for the precious things of the fruits of the sun, and or the precious things of the yield of the moons, And for the tops of the ancient mountains, and for the precious things of the everlasting hills, And for the precious things of the earth and the fullness thereof, and the good will of Him that dwelt in the bush; let the blessing come upon the head of Joseph, and upon the crown of the head of him that is prince among his brethren. His firstling bullock, majesty is his; and his horns are the horns of the wild-ox; with them he shall gore the peoples all of them, even the ends of the earth; and they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of Manasseh. And of Zebulun he said: Rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out, and Issachar, in thy tents. They shall call peoples unto the mountain; there shall they offer sacrifices of righteousness; for they shall suck the abundance of the seas, and the hidden treasures of the sand. And of Gad he said: Blessed be He that enlargeth Gad; he dwelleth as a lioness, and
teareth the arm, yea, the crown of the head. And he chose a first part of himself, for there a portion of the ruler was reserved; and there came the heads of the people, he executed the righteousness of the LORD, and His ordinances with Israel. And of Dan he said: Dan..."

Psalms 11Q7-606
50-1 BCE
From Psalm 18

"For the Leader. [A Psalm] of David the servant of the LORD,
who spoke unto the LORD the words of this song
in the day that the LORD delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and
from the hand of Saul;
And he said: I love thee, O LORD, my strength.
The LORD is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer;
My God, my rock, in Him I take refuge; my shield, and my horn of salvation, my high tower.
Praised, I cry, is the LORD, and I am saved from mine enemies.
The cords of Sheol surrounded me; the snares of Death confronted me.
In my distress I called upon the LORD, and cried unto my God;
Out of HIS temple He heard my voice, and my cry came before Him unto His ears.
Then the earth did shake and quake, the foundations also of the mountains did tremble;
They were shaken, because he was wroth.
Smoke arose up in His nostrils, and fire out of his mouth did devour; coals flamed forth from Him.
He bowed the heavens also, and came down; and thick darkness was under His feet.
And He rode upon a cherub, and did fly; yea, He did swoop down upon the wings of the wind.
He made darkness His hiding=place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies."

Jeremiah 4Q72-152
250-200 BCE
From Jeremiah 43: 5-9

"But Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces, took all the remnant of Judah, that were returned from all the nation whither they had been driven to sojourn in the land of Judah: the men, and the women, and the children, and the king's daughters, and every person that Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had left with Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, and Jeremiah the prophet, and Baruch the son of Neriah; and they came even to Tahpanhes. Then came the word of the LORD unto Jeremiah in Tahpanhes, saying: 'Take great stones in thy hand, and hide them in the mortar of the framework, which is at the entry of Pharaoh's house in Tahpanhes, in the sight of the men of Judah."

Community Rule 4Q258-131/1
11 BCE-78 CE
The Community Rule scroll, or the Manual of Discipline, contains a set of rules by which the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls conducted their lives.

"...they shall exclude him from the purity and from the council and from the judgment for two years, and he shall return to the madras and to the council, if he has not committed again a sin by inadvertence for two full years. For one sin of inadvertence he shall do two years' penance, but for a deliberate sin he shall return no more. However, he shall be tested for two years concerning the perfection of his way and concerning his counsel, in accordance with the decision of the Many, and he shall be inscribed in his rank in the Community of holiness...when these shall become a community in Israel according to these rules, to establish a foundation of a spirit of holiness in eternal truth, so as to atone for the guilty rebellion...and for the sin of unfaithfulness, and to gain divine acceptance for the land without the flesh of holocausts and the fat of sacrifices, the offerings and free-will gifts of the lips (being reckoned) justly as a fragrance."

Hodayot 4Q440-508 (Pseudo Thanksgiving Scroll)
75-50 BCE
The Pseudo Thanksgiving Scroll is an anthology of hymns that express the author's gratitude for God's mercies, his reflection on his position in relation to God and His benevolence and providence.

"...to every spirit, and your understanding to every...
...your glory to all that exists...
Blessed are you, my God, who are pure in all...
...all of us so that we should be made because...
...these in your goodness you have established
The depths of your awesome mysteries...
...your glorious plan. Blessed...
...h and until the last things not..."

Third set of five scrolls

On display at the museum from August 3, 2010 through October 24, 2010.

Genesis 4Q6-273
100-1 BCE
From Genesis 48: 5-11

"And now thy two sons, who were born unto thee in the land of Egypt before I came unto thee in Egypt, are mine; Ephraim and Manasseh, even as Reuben and Simeon, shall be mine. And thy issue, that thou begettest after them, shall be thine; they shall be called after the name of their brethren in their inheritance. And as for me, when I came from Paddan, Rachel died unto me in the land of Canaan in the way, when there was still some way to come unto Ephrath; and I buried her there in the way to Ephrath—the same is Beth-lehem. And Israel beheld Joseph's sons, and said: 'Who are these?' And Joseph said unto his father: 'They are my sons, whom God hath given me here.' And he said: 'Bring them, I pray thee, unto me, and I will bless them.' Now the eyes of Israel were dim for age, so that he could not see. And he brought them near unto him; and he kissed them, and embraced them. And Israel said unto Joseph..."

Leviticus 11Q1-1039/3
1-50 CE
From Leviticus 20: 1-6

"And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying: Moreover, thou shalt say to the children of Israel: Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth of his seed unto Molech; he shall surely be put to death; the people of the land shall stone him with stones. I also will set My face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people, because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile My sanctuary, and to profane My holy name. And if the people of the land do at all hide their eyes from that man, when he giveth of his seed unto Molech, and put him not to death; then I will set My face against that man, and against his family, and will cut him off, and all that go astray after him, to go astray after Molech, from among their people. And the soul that turneth unto the ghosts, and unto the familiar spirits..."

Apocryphal Psalms 11Q11-61
First century BCE

"...of David. Against an incantation in the name of YHWH. Invoke at any time
The heavens. When he comes to you in the night, you will say to him;
'who are you, oh offspring of man and of the seed of the holy ones. Your face is a face of delusion and your horns are horns of illusion, you are darkness and not light, injustice and not justice...the chief of the army, YHWH will bring you down to the deepest Sheol, and he will shut the two bronze gates through which no light penetrates, and the sun will not shine for you that rises upon the just man to...And you will say: the just man...to go...a demon mistreats him...
...of truth from...because he has justice and..."

Enoch 4Q212-228/1
300-150 BCE

"...his deeds will be in error...
...At his close the chosen ones will be chosen as witnesses to justice from the plant of everlasting justice; sevenfold wisdom and knowledge shall be given to them.
They shall uproot the foundations of violence and the work of deceit in it in order to carry out judgment.
After this, the eighth week will come, the one of justice, in which a sword will be given to all the just, for them to carry out just judgment against the wicked and they will be delivered into their hands. At its close, they will gain riches in justice and there will be built the temple of the kingship of The Great One, in his glorious greatness, for all eternal generation.
...and after that, the ninth week. In it will be revealed justice and just judgment to all the sons of the whole earth. All those who act wickedly will vanish completely from the entire earth and they shall be hurled into the eternal pit. All men will see the just eternal path. And after that, the tenth week. In its seventh part there will be eternal judgment and the moment of the great judgment and he will carry out revenge in the midst of the holy ones.
In it, the first heaven will pass away and there will appear a new heaven and all the forces of heaven will rise and shine through-out all eternity, seven times more. After that there will be many weeks, the number of which will not have an end ever, in which they shall practice goodness and justice..."

Community Rule 4Q256-905
30-1 BCE
The Community Rule scroll, or the Manual of Discipline, contains a set of rules by which the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls conducted their lives.

"...heavenly lights from the abode of His holiness and at their retiring to the dwelling of glory; at the commencement of the seasons on the days of the new moon, as we at their turnings, when one hands over to the other (when they are renewed it is a great day for the Holy of Holies, and a sign that the everlasting mercies will be opened at the beginning of the seasons for all time to come; at the beginning of the months according to their appointed times, and on the days of holiness established as a memorial at their appointed times, I will bless Him with the offering of the lips according to the precept engraved forever; at the beginnings of the years and at the turnings of the seasons, when the statute prescribed for them is fulfilled on the day that He has decreed the one should hand over to the other...the season of grain harvest to the summer, and to the season of sowing, and to the season of the new shoots; at the appointed times of the years, that is to say at their heptads..."